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Scenario Planning: Supplementing Traditional Strategic Planning

It is clear the rate of change in today's work environments has been aggravating with more emphasis nowadays on smaller teams, incremental and rapid delivery, faster payback, and frequent project status reporting. This acceleration has instigated uncertainty that forced organisations to start supporting their strategic planning with a longer term perspective of planning called scenario planning or scenario thinking/analysis. Scenario ...

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A Simple Method to Split a WordPress Post into Multiple Pages

A Simple Method to Split a Wordpress Post into Multiple Pages

One of the most effective ways to increase the number of page views and decrease the bounce rate of your site is by splitting your long posts into several pages. In the first part of the article, you will learn in 2 steps how to split a post in Wordpress using the codex function wp_link_pages() and the <!––nextpage––> tag. In the second ...

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Boosting Your WordPress Site’s Performance By Enabling GZIP Compression

Boosting Your Wordpress Site's Performance By Enabling GZIP Compression

Ever heard of GZIP? It is a simple software application that compresses/decompresses files based on an algorithm named DEFLATE. It works by finding similar strings in a text file and replacing them temporarily to make the overall file size smaller which would drastically improve the performance of your website. The algorithm perfectly works with CSS and HTML filetypes which typically ...

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Improving Quality of Project Estimation

It is clear that estimating a project is important for the project manager to determine how long the project would take, to figure out how much the project would cost, to decide whether the project is worth doing, to measure variances against the baseline plan, and to take corrective actions. However some project managers nowadays tend to put minimum effort ...

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Avoiding Common Pitfalls of High Performance Project Teams

Previously in one of my earlier articles, I discussed the key qualities required for a project manager to be effective in building a high performance project team. Believe it or not, though high performance project teams can produce incredible outcomes, there still remain some serious pitfalls that project managers need to be aware of in order not to fall victims ...

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Contract Management Must-Knows For Project Managers

Contract management constitutes a major component of a project procurement system. Most work done nowadays on projects involves dealing with contracts or has a contractual nature. Although some companies have purchasing departments that specialize in procurement, one of the basic knowledge and skills of a project manager is to be able to read and manage contracts. This post basically discusses ...

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Understanding And Managing Your Boss

The idea of “managing your boss” may sound quite unusual for some managers, considering the widespread adoption of the traditional top down management approach in most organizations. Even though talented and aggressive managers nowadays carefully control and administer their subordinates, services, and products, they might reveal, on the other hand, a passive stand with their bosses (Gabarro and Kotter 1993). ...

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Changes in Project Management Processes Between PMBOK 4 And PMBOK 5

This post presents a tabulated summary of differences in the names, inputs, tools, and outputs of project management processes between PMBOK 4 and PMBOK 5. Note that terms in Red which exist in PMBOK 4 have been removed or replaced in PMBOK 5, terms in Blue have been newly added into PMBOK 5, and terms in Black have not ...

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Critical Analysis of Porter's Five Forces Model - Information Technology (IT) Industry

In order to appropriately formulate their corporate strategies and distinctively compete in the market, organizations are in a need for a framework that would help them in understanding industry structure and in overcoming rivalry. This essay aims at discussing, analyzing, and criticizing Porter’s Five Forces model using a wide variety of academic literature. The first part introduces the model, discusses ...

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Key Qualities For An Effective Project Manager

This post describes key qualities needed for an effective project manager. It discusses the differences between leading and managing a project, explains the importance of managing stakeholders, describes how to gain influence by reciprocity, stresses on the significance of leading by example and managing by wandering around (MBWA), explores how to deal with the contradictory nature of work, and finally ...

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Home > Human Resource Management > Developing An Effective Performance Management Process: Five Approaches Defined

Developing An Effective Performance Management Process: Five Approaches Defined

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Most managers today dislike the performance appraisal process and view it as an annual, traditional, time-consuming, burdensome, counterproductive, and a painful practice where they only spend a small amount of time at the end of the year collecting employee information and filling out appraisal forms. Reasons include the inconsistency in using performance appraisals within the organization, the ambiguity in distinguishing among the different levels of performance, and the poor linkage between the appraisal system and the need to develop better skills and competencies for employees. Yet what these managers don’t know is that performance appraisal when properly conducted is considered invaluable to the organization since it builds up employee objectives, links them to the corporate and strategic goals, identifies employee strengths and weaknesses, and legally explains to an employee how HR decisions were taken. For more information on how to strengthen the performance appraisal process and strategically link it with employee training and development, check out my article Linking Performance Appraisal to Training And Development: Case Study Example.

In this 2145-word post, a model of an effective performance management process based on the one proposed by Elaine D. Pulakos is presented. Next, the purposes of performance management in achieving organizational goals are clearly delineated. Finally, a variety of approaches to performance management with their associated techniques and their corresponding strengths and weaknesses are examined in detail. These approaches include the comparative approach, the attribute approach, the behavioral approach, the results approach, and the quality approach.


The Performance Management Process


Performance management ensures employee goals, objectives, and outcomes are in harmony with organizational goals. The performance management system consists of three main parts: defining performance that is appropriate to the organization through the job analysis process, measuring performance by acquiring information on how well an employee is fulfilling his/her job via the appraisal system, and finally reporting performance feedback and effectiveness to employees.

It should be noted that the performance management process is not a onetime event that occurs once a year but it is a fully-fledged model process as shown in the figure below. The model which is based on the one proposed by Elaine D. Pulakos in his book “Performance Management: A New Approach For Driving Business Results” consists of six steps for an effective performance management process.

Step 1. This step involves the identification of the organization’s goals and objectives and the key performance outcomes that provide value for customers, employees, and the organization in general. The goals of all departments, divisions, and employees of the organization need to be aligned with its strategic goals.

Step 2. This step involves identifying SMART objectives, goals, behaviors, and activities for a given employee in order to determine how he can achieve the company goals spotted in the first step.

Step 3.  This step involves exchanging regular feedback between employees and their managers to point out their achievements and their weaknesses and issues. Proper training and senior management support is provisioned here to ensure performance feedback is genuinely communicated between the employee and the manager, an effective performance management system is entrenched in the organization’s culture, and appraisals are completed on time.

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